Under the Enforce and Protect Act of 2015 (“EAPA”), U.S. Customs and Border Protection (“CBP”) is authorized to determine whether covered merchandise has entered the United States through evasion, resulting in the reduction or elimination of otherwise applicable antidumping (“AD”) or countervailing duties (“CVD”) on the merchandise.  19 U.S.C. § 1517.  Under the statute, if CBP “is unable to determine whether the merchandise at issue is covered merchandise,” i.e., subject to an AD or CVD order, CBP may “refer the matter to the {U.S. Department of Commerce (“Commerce”)} to determine whether the merchandise is covered merchandise” pursuant to Commerce’s authority to make AD/CVD scope determinations.  In Commerce’s new regulations, the agency establishes procedures that will govern its handling of these covered merchandise referrals from CBP.  19 C.F.R. § 351.227.  In doing so, Commerce formalizes what has been an ad hoc approach to these covered merchandise referrals under its existing regulations and establishes covered merchandise inquiries as a distinct proceeding segment alongside scope and anti-circumvention inquiries, which seek to answer similar questions regarding coverage of AD/CVD orders.

As relevant background, CBP’s EAPA investigations focus on the specific question of whether certain imports by particular companies are unlawfully evading applicable ADs and/or CVDs.  These investigations follow allegations of evasion (e.g., fraudulent country of origin markings, misclassification, transshipment, etc.) by interested parties (e.g., other U.S. importers of the covered merchandise, a U.S. producer of the domestic like product, or a trade association) and can result in the imposition of various remedies by CBP.  For example, if CBP determines that there is reasonable suspicion that covered merchandise entered the United States through evasion, it may impose “interim measures” including the suspension of liquidation of unliquidated entries, extension of the period for liquidating unliquidated entries, and an array of other measures (e.g., requiring a single transaction bond or the posting of cash deposits).  Continuation of these remedies is available to CBP following a final determination as to evasion, and CBP may also pursue other recourse (e.g., penalty actions) against the companies subject to investigation.


Continue Reading Revisions to the Department of Commerce’s Antidumping / Countervailing Duty Regulations: Covered Merchandise Referrals

On June 24, 2021, US Customs and Border Protection (CBP) issued a Withhold Release Order (WRO) pursuant to 19 USC 1307 against Xinjiang, China-based Hoshine Silicon Industry Co. Ltd. and its subsidiaries (Hoshine). The WRO instructs CPB personnel to detain shipments of silica-based products produced by Hoshine and its subsidiaries, including “materials and goods (such as polysilicon) derived from or produced using those silica-based products.”

On the same day, the US Commerce Department’s Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) added Hoshine Silicon Industry (Shanshan) Co., Ltd  and four other Xinjiang-based companies to the Entity List based on allegations of their participation “in the practice of, accepting, or utilizing forced labor” in their production processes.

On June 23, 2021, the Department of Labor (DOL) published a Federal Register notice updating its List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor  (TVPRA List) to include polysilicon from China.

Meanwhile, the US Senate Foreign Relations Committee (SFRC) advanced a bill that, if passed, would impose additional restrictions on the importation of goods from China’s Xinjiang Province.


Continue Reading Biden Administration Targets Xinjiang-based Solar Companies over Labor Allegations

US Customs and Border Protection (CBP) maintains a comprehensive set of regulations restricting the importation of various pieces of artwork, antiquities, and cultural property. On June 16, 2021, CBP published in the Federal Register a final rule amending those regulations to reflect the imposition of new import restrictions on certain archeological material imported from Turkey.

The final rule recognizes that the artwork and cultural antiquities from Turkey are in jeopardy of pillage. It adds Turkey to the list of countries which have a bilateral agreement with the United States imposing import restrictions on the cultural patrimony from their respective countries and provides a Designated List identifying the types of archaeological material that are now governed by the restrictions.


Continue Reading CBP Publishes New Import Restrictions on Archeological Material from Turkey