On April 22, 2021, President Biden will host a virtual summit with 40 world leaders to discuss the global climate change crisis. The “Leaders Summit on Climate” is intended to catalyze more ambitious emissions-reduction efforts by the world’s major economies. The United States intends to lead by example with a new 2030 emissions target as its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) under the Paris Agreement.
The decision to convene a summit on climate change is one of many signals sent by the Biden Administration over the past few months that the U.S. approach to climate change is shifting dramatically, both at home and abroad. The Biden Administration has made clear that climate change must be part of decision-making across the entire government, including with respect to trade policy. Stronger enforcement of the environmental standards in U.S. FTAs, the integration of climate change into government procurement decisions, and strengthening U.S. supply chains for electric vehicles are all part of this shift. The United States is also pushing climate cooperation bilaterally. It recently entered into a “Competitiveness and Resilience (CoRe) Partnership” with Japan that focuses on the development and deployment of clean-energy technologies. The United States and China also recently released a Joint Statement “Addressing the Climate Crisis” that acknowledges their shared commitment to implementing the Paris Agreement.
One of the trade-related climate policies currently under consideration by the United States is “carbon border adjustments”. President Biden included carbon adjustments in his campaign plan and USTR referenced the possibility of imposing “carbon border adjustments” in its recently announced 2021 Trade Policy Agenda. Carbon border adjustments charge a fee on imported goods based on the carbon intensity of their production process in order to reduce the incentive to relocate carbon-intensive production to jurisdictions that have not yet addressed the need for carbon emitters to internalize emission costs, commonly referred to as “carbon leakage”. They also serve to level the playing field for domestic industries that would otherwise face competition from cheaper, more carbon-intensive imports. By raising costs on imports, carbon adjustments may also incentivize other countries to adopt similar carbon pricing policies. Carbon adjustments may also rebate the cost of a domestic carbon fee on exports to help them compete in international markets.